Physicians for Human Rights (Click here)

“In the way in which it is used in the United States, solitary confinement constitutes torture and for cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment, or violation of both international law and America’s founding principles.”

What Solitary Does to the Human Brain (Click here)

“Prolonged isolation can damage the cerebral cortex, which is ‘the part of the brain that makes us most human.’”
“Even in individuals with no prior history of mental illness or irritability, extended periods of isolated confinement have produced severe Psychological Symptoms, and left deep and often permanent psychological scars . . . .  Such findings have been bolstered by the field of neuroscience, which is progressively discovering evidence that long-term isolation has the potential to actually alter the chemistry and structure of he brain.”

“Solitary confinement fundamentally alters the brain.”
Solitary Confinement fundamentally alters the brain (Click here)

Professional Journals

Pathological Effects of Solitary Confinement (Click here)
By Stuart Grassian
American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, no. 11 (Nov 1, 1983): pp1450 – 54

Psychiatric Effects of Solitary Confinement (Click here)
by Stuart Grassian
Journal of Law and Policy  (2006)  22:pp325 – 83

Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Solitary and ‘SuperMax’ Confinement (Click here)
by Craig Haney
Crime Delinquency 49, no. 1 (January 2003): pp124 – 56

Science in Dachau’s Shadow: Hebb, Beecher, and the Development of CIA Psychological Torture and Modern Medical Ethics (Click here)
by Alfred McCoy
Journal of the History of he Behavioral Sciences  43 (Fall 2007):pp401 – 17

The Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prison Inmates: A Brief History and Review of the Literature
by Peter Smith
Crime and Justice (2006) Int. Rev. of the Red Cross 591 (2007)

The Worst Scars are in the Mind: Psychological Torture (Click here)
by Herna’n Reyes
89 Int. Rev. of the of the Red Cross 591 (2007)

Torture vs. Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatement: Is the Distinction Real or Apparent? (Click here)
by Metibn Basoglu, et.al. . .
64 Archives Gen. Psychiatry 277 (2007)

Reexamine get Psychological Distress in the Current Conditions of Segregation. (Click here)
by Holly Miller
1 J. Correctional Healthcare 39, 48  (1994)

Prison Segregation: Administrative Detention Remedy or Mental Health (Click here)
by Holly Miller & G. Young
7 Criminal Behavior and Mental Health 85, 92  (1972)

Changes in EEG Alpha Frequency and Evoked Response Latency During Solitary Confinement (Click here)
by Gendreau, Freedman, & Wilde
79 J Abnormal Psych. 54 pp57-58  (1972)